EANA: Research

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Research

Origin of Life: Life is defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-reproduction and of evolving. more.........

Life in Extreme Environments: Life on Earth is based on the chemistry of carbon in water. The temperature limits compatible with the existence of life are thus imposed by the intrinsic properties of chemical bonds involved in this type of chemistry at different temperatures. more........

Planetary Astrobiology:
Most of the planets have been visited by spacecraft, humans have walked on the Moon and stay continuously on the International Space Station (ISS) . Many details regarding the climate, radiation and particle environment, meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, geology, habitability and atmospheric evolution of other planets and their satellites are now better understood, so that the search of extant and extinct primitive alien life forms in our solar-system can begin. more.....

Planetary Protection:
In order to retrieve samples from another place in the solar system that might harbor life, careful planning is required to ensure that mission designs incorporate measures to safeguard both the Earth and other solar system bodies from cross contamination. more.....

Meteors and Meteorites: There is a small group of meteorites originating from the same parent body, all of igneous origin, called the SNC (after their type specimens Shergotty, Nakhla and Chassigny). more.......

Comets: Comets are small celestial bodies consisting mostly of dust and gases (dirty snowbals) that move in elongated elliptical or nearly parabolic orbits around the sun. Many end up colliding with the Sun. more.......

Interstellar Medium: Outer space is not a complete vacuum. Although the interstellar regions are more devoid of matter than any vacuum artificially created on Earth, there is matter in space. Interstellar media have very low densities and consist mainly of gas (99%) and dust. In total, approximately 15% of the visible matter in our Galaxy is composed of interstellar gas and dust. more.......

Extra-Solar Planets: The discovery of the first extrasolar planet orbiting around an 8 Ga old star called 51 Pegasus, forty-two light years away within the Milky Way, was announced on October 6, 1995. The suspected planet takes just four days to orbit 51 Pegasus. It has a surface temperature around 1,000oC and a mass about 0.5 the mass of Jupiter. more.......

Life Detection Technologies: An astrobiology package should carry: a microscope for general examination of the samples at a resolution of 3 µm (plus a close-up camera with 50 µm resolution); an infrared Raman spectroscope for identifying mineral and organic molecules, with near-IR excitation for biological and geochemical studies; an alpha-proton-X-ray spectrometer for identifying chemical elements; a Mossbauer spectrometer for measuring iron composition and oxidation states; a pyrolitic gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer for isotopic, elemental, organic and inorganic molecular composition, and chirality measurements; sensors for hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants. more.......

Laboratory Studies: International space exploration programs brought us to a stage where it is of great importance to study physical, chemical, mineralogical and biological effects under simulated space, cometary and planetary conditions in so called space simulation facilities. more.......

Experiments on ISS: Although Europe's Columbus laboratory is not yet in orbit, European experiments are already being performed aboard the International Space Station, and more are in preparation. European Soyuz Flights provide a continuing and significant number of experiment opportunities, and agreements with NASA are important, in particular, for experiments in human physiology. Beyond these, the experiments for the increments after Columbus is attached to the ISS are being prepared. This article describes the selection and planning process for the various opportunities, the facilities used and the planned experiments per discipline. more.......